Cartoons of the Ukrainian Peopleʼs Republic of the beginning of the 20th century: indecisive Hrushevsky, dreams of independence, bloody Bolsheviks, neighbors tearing Ukraine apart. A story in 10 illustrations-memes
After the actual collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917, Ukrainians finally had a chance to create their own state. The political elites created a parliament in Kyiv, Centralna Rada, which led the national movement. One of the first democratic manifestations was the abolition of press censorship. And it reacted to the events, among other things, with political caricatures, which can be considered memes of the time. Moreover, they criticized not only their opponents, but also their political leaders — the head of Centralna Rada Mykhailo Hrushevskyi, his deputy Volodymyr Vynnychenko, etc. Unfortunately, the young Ukrainian state soon had to fight on several fronts, and in the end it did not survive. But the main enemy then, as now, was Russia, only Bolshevik Russia. "Babel" already mentioned the caricatures of the First and Second World Wars. And now we recall attempts to establish Ukrainian statehood in 1917-1921 in ten of the brightest illustrations-memes by Ukrainian caricaturists of that time.