The WSJ published the terms of the peace agreement between Russia and Ukraine. It was drawn up in April 2022, but never signed

Oleksandra Amru

The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) obtained access to the 17-page document of Russiaʼs peace agreement with Ukraine. It was drawn up on April 15, 2022 during the negotiations, but was never signed. The document was not made public.

Western high-ranking officials and analysts say that behind this treaty are Russian President Putinʼs plans to turn Ukraine into a state that is constantly vulnerable to Russian aggression and incapable of resistance.

The document talks about how negotiators from both sides sought to end hostilities by agreeing to turn Ukraine into a "permanently neutral state that does not participate in military blocs." According to the agreement, the state would be prohibited from rebuilding its army with the support of the West, and Crimea would have to remain under the full control of the Russian Federation.

In the end, the agreement was not signed. Russian war crimes in Ukraine became increasingly large-scale, and Kyivʼs position in the war improved, in particular thanks to support from the West.

  • According to the draft treaty, Ukraine would not have the right to join military alliances such as NATO. At the same time, the right to join the EU would be preserved. No foreign weapons would be allowed on Ukrainian soil, and the Armed Forces of Ukraine would have to be significantly reduced. Moscow wanted Ukrainian troops to have 85 000 soldiers, 342 tanks and 519 artillery pieces. Russia also demanded that the range of Ukrainian missiles should be 40 kilometers. At the same time, the Ukrainian side wanted to have 250 000 soldiers, 800 tanks and 1 900 artillery pieces. In fact, with this treaty, Russia sought to make Ukraine as neutral a state as possible without the ability to resist external aggression.
  • Of all the territories occupied by Russia, only Crimea should remain under the absolute control of Moscow. At the same time, the future of "L/DPR" should have been decided through negotiations between the presidents of Ukraine and Russia, which never took place.
  • Moscow also insisted that the Russian language act on an equal footing with Ukrainian in the government and courts. Ukraine did not agree to this point.
  • According to the treaty, the USA, Great Britain, China, France and Russia should guarantee Ukraineʼs security. These countries should protect Ukraine. However, as long as the agreement is in force, the guarantors will have to "terminate international treaties and agreements incompatible with the permanent neutrality of Ukraine", including any agreements on bilateral military support. International security guarantees did not apply to Crimea and Sevastopol.
  • Russia also wanted to add Belarus as a guarantor, and Ukraine wanted Turkey.
  • Russia also demanded that the International Criminal Court not investigate its war crimes. Kyiv refused to discuss this point. Also, Ukraine did not agree to the cancellation of mutual sanctions.

In the event that Ukraine is attacked, the Russian side proposed that all guarantor states agree on a response. However, this would mean that a single response would be unlikely if the attack was caused by Russia itself. At the same time, the Ukrainian side wanted the countryʼs airspace to be closed in case of aggression. This would require the guarantor states to provide weapons to Ukraine and establish a no-fly zone. The Russian Federation did not agree to this.

The first round of peace talks began days after Russiaʼs full-scale invasion began in February 2022. The Ukrainian and Russian sides first met in Belarus, and then in Turkey. The negotiations lasted until June 2022.

The peace agreement document is based on the 1990 treaty that created a unified Germany, The Wall Street Journal notes. The Soviets then left East Germany on the condition that the country give up nuclear weapons and limit the size of its army.

According to the Chatham House think tank, since its first invasion of eastern Ukraine and annexation of Crimea in 2014, the Russian Federation has violated more than 400 international treaties and conventions. Also, Russia used previous truces or peace treaties with Georgia, Syria and Ukraine for its own benefit.